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Teach me about fuel injectors

JoshT

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I'll be doing a performance and eventually turbo build on my 2.3L so I've been searching around for injectors and realizing how little I know about them. I'm posting this in general discussion because it applies to any fuel injected engine. I happen to be working on a 2.3L, but the knowledge I seek applies to any of the Ranger engines with port injecton. Just talking about injectors for port injection here, the new direct injection engines use a totally different style of injector.

Let me go ahead and say that I'm not asking about flow sizing. I am aware that there are a bunch of different flow ratings available and that the flow rating needs to be matched to the engine performance. That is the actual needs for the engine. If the engine is only capable of making 100 horsepower, installing larger injectors won't raise it to 200 unless that was the bottle neck in the first place. Likewise, even if the engine is built to make 400 hp, it can't do it if the injectors will only supply enough fuel for 200.

What I'm talking about are the physical variations in injectors. Length, shape, connector, and the like. I see so much terminology thrown around the forums and when I go to places selling injectors the same language is rarely used. Mostly places are selling kits for particular vehicles/engines and mine isn't one of them.

I've kind of figured out the difference between high and low impedence, but not so much what is used where.

I know that the majority are just slip fit using o-rings and the pressure of the fuel rail to hold them in place, but do they all use the same o-rings and/or fit into the same size fuel rail or manifold hole?

I've seen some references to swapping injectors and having to shim fuel rails to fit, but most of the time it's with aftermarket fuel rails but still I don't understand the reasoning. Are they all the same length?

I see people talking about large body or pencil style injectors. I can easily see the difference there, but I don't understand what effects that difference has on the injector. Is it just progression of technology that things are getting smaller, or is there a difference in fitment and function?

I see reverences to EV1 or EV6 injectors. EV6 injectors with EV1 connectors. USCAR and Jetronic. Obviously these terms have some meaning, but they are lost on me.

I do know enough to know that you can get adapters to go from one type of connector to another, but not so much about the different type of connectors and who uses what where.

Is there some top notch guide about this online that I've failed to find through the Google Fu? If so I'd appreciate a link if you happen to have it saved. Figuring out what vehicles came with what injectors has also been challenging because most of what I find is speculation, not something that people have first hand experience with. When looking up injectors on some place like RockAuto, they don't list data like style and flow rating, just the application and a picture.
 


snoranger

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Your Ranger uses Jetronic EV-1 injectors. EV-6 injectors are the same height, just a smaller diameter and different connector. Both of these are common on Fords. They’re very easy to tell apart visually.

I guess I should have mentioned that they’re interchangeable as it’s just main body diameter differences. The O-rings are the same diameter.
 
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lil_Blue_Ford

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You know, I’ve been trying to figure out a way to ask my fuel injector questions too and a bit of the same questions and some different. I had someone tell me recently that I can replace the fuel injectors in my F-150 with Explorer ones and get more power and fuel economy because the F-150 has single hole and the Explorer used 4 hole injectors, which makes some degree of sense (better atomization) but I know there’s more to it because of all the injector differences. I don’t know how much fuel pressure plays a part either…
 

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There are some beautiful injectors at the allergy clinic I go to each month.
 

snoranger

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You know, I’ve been trying to figure out a way to ask my fuel injector questions too and a bit of the same questions and some different. I had someone tell me recently that I can replace the fuel injectors in my F-150 with Explorer ones and get more power and fuel economy because the F-150 has single hole and the Explorer used 4 hole injectors, which makes some degree of sense (better atomization) but I know there’s more to it because of all the injector differences. I don’t know how much fuel pressure plays a part either…
Yes, you could use Explorer injectors. It may even make a difference, a difference so small that you would never notice it.
 

JoshT

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You know, I’ve been trying to figure out a way to ask my fuel injector questions too and a bit of the same questions and some different. I had someone tell me recently that I can replace the fuel injectors in my F-150 with Explorer ones and get more power and fuel economy because the F-150 has single hole and the Explorer used 4 hole injectors, which makes some degree of sense (better atomization) but I know there’s more to it because of all the injector differences. I don’t know how much fuel pressure plays a part either…
Exactly! Got questions, don't know exactly what they are, and don't really know whow to ask them. I gave up on trying to figure it out how and just did. I figured if we start asking questions, eventually we'll get some good information built up to refer to.

That's another good one. Different pintle caps and spray patterns. Allegedly they make a difference, but don't really know anything about it. What I do recall hearing it that they might make for a smoother idle.

Fuel pressure plays into the flow rating. Lets say you've got an injector rated at 19lb/hr @ 40psi, bumping the pressure to 60 psi will increase flow to about 23lb/hr.
 

JoshT

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There are some beautiful injectors at the allergy clinic I go to each month.
Hopefully they are helping with your allergy problems. I'd recommend keeping your injector in your pants. It could get rough if you have a rough break with an ex-injectee that works there, and they've got to inject you. Expecially if there's more than one ex-injectee and they get to talking about in a bad way.
 

JoshT

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Your Ranger uses Jetronic EV-1 injectors. EV-6 injectors are the same height, just a smaller diameter and different connector. Both of these are common on Fords. They’re very easy to tell apart visually.

I guess I should have mentioned that they’re interchangeable as it’s just main body diameter differences. The O-rings are the same diameter.
So If I say "Jetronic" or "EV-1" what's the difference? Are they just different names for the same thing?

They're interchangeable as in just the Jetronic EV-1 and the EV-6 are interchangeble, all Ford injectors are interchangable, or all injectors (period) are interchangable? I often read about people on forums for various makes swapping in Ford injectors, I doubt that every make runs the same injector and connector style as Ford.

The problem with just telling them apart visually is that I don't have a place I can go and look through different styles of injectors. There are no pick-n-pulls local to me. The local junk yards won't let people into the yard for the most part. The few that do, don't want you just taking things apart, find what you need and they'll send someone out to pull it. (Not complaining, I understand liability.) Usually I'm just working off words on a site I don't really understand on a site with no/poor pictures. Now if someone says Jetronic and I know that means EV-1 and that my injectors are EV-1, then I'm golden. It'll also help to be able to look at an injector and figure out what it is myself because I might not always be working on a 2.3L, a Ranger, or even a Ford.
 

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try searching:
fuel injector specification charts

prepare to be overloaded with info
 

snoranger

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Here’s what Ford states:
About electrical connectors:

  • The USCAR connector is sometimes referred to as EV6, which is a Bosch term for the generation of injector.
  • Jetronic is the older style connector, sometimes referred to by the Bosch generation EV1.
  • Neither EV1 or EV6 is technically correct because those generations of Bosch injectors could come with either connector. However most EV1's commonly seen use the Jetronic connector and most EV6's use the USCAR connector so it's easy to see the connection.
 

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There are some beautiful injectors at the allergy clinic I go to each month.
They say that nurses that give injections often get behind in their work.
 

JoshT

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Here’s what Ford states:
About electrical connectors:

  • The USCAR connector is sometimes referred to as EV6, which is a Bosch term for the generation of injector.
  • Jetronic is the older style connector, sometimes referred to by the Bosch generation EV1.
  • Neither EV1 or EV6 is technically correct because those generations of Bosch injectors could come with either connector. However most EV1's commonly seen use the Jetronic connector and most EV6's use the USCAR connector so it's easy to see the connection.
Hummm... well... This shit's about as clear as muddy water ain't it.

Good info, but it's bad when even the manufacturers are mixing and matching lingo.
 

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As for the flow rate read here: https://help.summitracing.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/4807/~/what-size-injectors-do-i-need?

The injection pattern can matter a bit but would depend on intake port design as well as injector location
A single spray point vs 4 spray points could mean more fuel ends up on the sides of the intake port not in the cylinder, so a waste of fuel.
One of the benefits of fuel injection over a carburetor was less wasted fuel coating the inside of the intake all the way to the head port, when you shut off the engine all that fuel just evaporates, money out of your pocket
And benefit of Direct Injection is no wasted fuel in the head port and back side of intake valve, ain't much but ain't 0 either, lol

The mix with the air is the main thing, the pounds of fuel that make it into the cylinder, I am fan of single spray point
Velocity of the air flow "atomizes" it just fine, and the heat in the cylinder Vaporizes it, even better, lol

Ford Ranger computers used Low Impedance injectors, so if you are using the Ford computer then that's what you need to use
 

snoranger

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Hummm... well... This shit's about as clear as muddy water ain't it.

Good info, but it's bad when even the manufacturers are mixing and matching lingo.
To Summarize:

  • EV1, EV6, and EV14 are Bosch Fuel Injector Body Styles
  • Jetronic / Minitimer, and USCAR are Fuel Injector Connector Types.
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ABAC3B2E-EDF7-4C08-8047-525C72048DF0.jpeg
 

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