2.0/2.3/2.5L Family


Jspafford

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Ford’s 2.0/2.3/2.5 litre engine family


These motors are commonly referred to as either the Lima or simply the 2.X OHC (Over Head Cam) engines. They started life based on the German designed 2.0 EAO Sport motors that were first introduced to this country in the Mercury Capri’s from the early 70’s. They share nothing with the 2.3-2.5 litre HSC motors that were offered in the passenger car line from ’84-’91. The 2.3 first debuted in the 1974 Pinto using a progressive 2Bbl Webber/Holley carb and a points distributor. In ’75 they were upgraded to a Duraspark ignition system. They remained unchanged until about ’81 when the intake ports were changed from an oval to a D shape (flat floor). The 2.0/2.3 litre versions that were offered in Rangers starting in ’83 used a different head having four evenly spaced round holes of equal size. A 2.0 litre 1-bbl carbed version was offered in Rangers from ’83-’85, and in ’87-’88 with a 2-bbl in some parts of the US, Canada and Mexico. EFI was added to the engines in ’85. In ’89 the 2.3 was changed to a DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition utilizing a new 8-plug head. This head had larger evenly spaced D-shaped intake ports and was used until the end of production of the 2.5 in ‘01. The 2.5 litre version was only offered from ‘98 To ’01, when the engine was replaced by a 2.3 litre DOHC Duratec based engine.

In ’79-‘81 a high compression drawthru carb’ed turbo version of the 2.3 was offered. In ’83-‘88 a lower compression EFI turbo version was offered in T-birds, Cougars, Mustang SVOs and Merkur XR4Ti’s (through ’89).

Some of the changes to the motor over the years were:
Rear main seal changed from a two piece to a one piece design in ’86.
Roller cams were installed from ’89 on in Rangers and ’91 on in Mustangs.
Crankshaft main journal sizes were reduced starting in ’88.
CPS (Cam Position Sensor) was added starting in ’95 (’94 in California). At this time Ford changed to a 104-pin computer (it was a 60-pin) and moved the DIS functions into the computer, previously the DIS system had a TFI module as a separate unit mounted on the front of the intake manifold.

Major engine specs are

.......................................2.0.........2.3 Early....2.3 Late.....2.5
Bore...............................3.520........3.780.........3.780......3.780
Stroke............................3.126........3.126.........3.126......3.401
Bore Spacing...................4.173........4.173.........4.173......4.173
Main Journal Dia..............2.3986......2.3986.......2.2055......2.2055
Rod Journal Dia...............2.0468......2.0468.......2.0468.....2.0468
Con. Rod Length..............5.2047......5.2047.......5.2047.....5.457
Crank Center to deck.......8.368........8.368.........8.368......8.368
Piston pin height...............1.583........1.583.........1.583.....1.2105

Differences between major engine parts are as follows:

Blocks-
2.0 is an underbored 2.3, with the exception of the bore the blocks are identical to all
2.3’s.
’75-’88 2.3’s are interchangeable.
’89-’94 same as ’83-’88 2.3’s but have a smaller main journal saddle, the oil pan seal
surface was changed in ‘87 to eliminate the 4 piece seal and holes were added in
the front to bolt on the DIS’s crank trigger assembly.
’95-‘01 similar to the ’89-‘95’s but a Cam Position Sensor was added behind the aux
sprocket, the hole for the distributor was eliminated and the oil pump was moved
in place of the aux. shaft itself.
Turbo blocks are identical to the ’83-’88 Ranger blocks but have an additional boss w/ a
hole threaded in the pass. side about ½ way back that provides a place to drain the
lubricating oil back into the engine from the turbo.

Cranks-
2.0 and early 2.3 cranks are identical.
Late 2.3 cranks have smaller main journals.
2.5 cranks are identical to 2.3’s except they have a longer stroke.

Rods-
2.0 and 2.3 (including turbo) rods are identical up through at least ’94. In fact they still
have the original D4 (’74) casting number on them.

Pistons-
The 2.0 pistons are unique and don’t interchange.
The 2.3 pistons are all the same excluding the turbo versions, which were forged. Low
compression (8.0-1) in the ’83-‘88’s and high compression (9.0-1) in the ’79-
‘81’s.
The 2.5 pistons are similar to the 2.3’s but have a different wrist pin height.

Heads-
All 2.0/2.3/2.5 heads will physically bolt in place of each other, they all have similar
exhaust port shape and placement. All cams are interchangeable as long as they
are used with the proper followers. Later model ('95 and newer) roller cam
followers cannot be easily swapped onto an older head as the valve stem size was
reduced in the newer heads and matching slot in the follower was reduced.
Early 2.0 and 2.3 heads have the same small round intake ports spaced evenly apart, they
differ from each other in their valve sizes though
.
There are several variations on the 2.3 heads though they break down into 4 distinct types:

1. Passenger car oval port heads-’74-’80 Mustang, Pinto, Fairmont, Bobcat, etc.
2. Passenger car D-port head-’81-’95? T-bird, Mustang, Etc.
3. Truck round port- ’83-’85 Ranger
4. Truck D-port- ’89-’01 Ranger. The '89-'94's and '95-'01's have different combustion chambers and ports. IMHO, the newer head is better designed



The following parts and information I gleaned from the Federal Mogul’s website while I was searching for other parts. The part numbers are theirs and are Sealed Power numbers except those in parenthesis are: FP = Fel-Pro, FM = Federal Mogul

Cylinder head

Part....................................Years covered..............PN

Head Bolts.................................83-01...................ES72137 (FP)
(stretch to yield)

Exhaust Valve............................83-94...................V3943
1.500” head, .3414” stem dia, 4.792” OAL

Intake Valve..............................83-94...................V2170
1.735” head, .3419” stem dia, 4.787” OAL

Exhaust Valve............................95-01...................V4553
1.500” head, .2740” stem dia, 4.8070” OAL

Intake Valve..............................95-01...................V4488
1.735” head, .2750” stem dia, 4.787” OAL

Valve Guide...............................83-94...................VG1372
.3440 ID, 2.1880” OAL-spiral reamed & flg

Valve Guide...............................95-97...................VG1389T
Threaded, .2765” ID, 1.9300” OAL

Valve Spring...............................83-94..................VS1459
1.9800” free height w/ damper

Valve Spring...............................95-01..................VS1647
2.0197” free height

Valve Keeper/Lock......................83-94...................VK205

Valve Keeper/Lock......................83-94...................VK205R
Hard

Valve Keeper/Lock......................95-01...................VK287

Valve Spring Insert (shims)..........83-94...................259-102A or B or C
A=.060” B=.030” C=.015”


Engine

Part......................................Years covered................PN

Connecting Rods.........................74-97.......................R25BJ (FM)
Forging #D42E-AA

Pistons......(2.3).........................77-91........................H435P
2-2.00mm/1-4.76mm rings, Comp Dist:1.578”. Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs

Pistons......(2.3).........................83-94.........................H537P
2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.575”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs

Pistons......(2.3)..........................82-89........................495P
2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.578”, Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs

Pistons.(2.3??)............................95-97........................H676P
2-1.5mm/1-3.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.335”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs

Oil Pump (4/8/85 and older).........80-85........................224-41160
Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminium Oil Pan

Oil Pump High Volume.................80-85........................224-41160V
Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminium Oil Pan

Oil Pump (4/9/85 and newer).......86-94........................224-41127

Oil Pump Shaft...........................80-94.........................224-61160

Oil pump screen.........................77-85.........................224-12160

Oil pump screen.........................86-94.........................224-13160



Misc. bits of info and part numbers...


O2 sensor threads are 18x1.5 m/m

Head bolt holes are threaded 12x1.75m/m

Shank diameter for older head bolts is .465"
Shank diameter on the newer torque to yield head bolts is .425"
(In case anybody was wondering)

Core (freeze) plugs
Cyl head and the block pass. side are 1.500" (NAPA pn 219-3133)
Cyl block rear is 2.060"


180* thermostat is Stant PN 13828.

'89-'94 Ranger Roller cam .215" lift at lobe. Lobe is .675 wide
Follower's roller diameter is .900"

'95-'01 Ranger Roller cam .215" lift at lobe. Lobe is .510 wide
Follower's roller diameter is .900"

Turbo stuff

head gaskets
Medium duty (0-17psi)- FMS #M-6051-A231 (disconitnued )
Severe duty (0-27psi)- Fel-pro #1035
Ridiculous duty(0-35psi)- ? (temporarily lost the part number)


Recommended Valve Seals (Good for N/A too)
Intake- E7ZZ-6571-A
Exhaust- E7ZZ-6571-B

Small VAM's openings measure 2.75" OD
Large VAM's openings measure 3.15" OD


Head porting link
http://www.sa-motorsports.com/diyport.htm
 
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Jspafford

Logan Andrew Feb 17, 2012
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Misc. automotive calculations
http://www.bgsoflex.com/auto.html



I'll be filling more things in here soon, any and all suggestions and contributions are appreciated.



Engine and component weights, all are +/- a pound or so. (bathroom scale)

Bare 2.3 large journal crank-----33#

Bare 2.5 crank---------------------40#

Bare 2.3 turbo block (w/ caps)--105#

Set of 4 2.5 pistons and rods-----10#

Cam and roller followers----------5#

Manual tranny flywheel-----------18#

Auto tranny flexplate---------------3#

Short block (w/ pan, flywheel, water pump + dist)-212#

Head (w/ manifolds but no cam and followers)-85#

Bare head---------------------------54#

Steel rocker cover-----------------2.7#

Turbo (Garrett T03)----------------25#


So, if my math is correct a fully assembled engine, less timing belt, cover and head bolts but including a MT flywheel and manifolds weighs 305# (Add 25# for a non-intercooled turbo motor)

Addditional bits...

2.5 piston w/ rings, wristpin and small rod end-1.56#
2.5 large rod end w/o bearing shells--------------.9375#
2.3 N/A piston w/ wristpin and small rod end---1.9375#
2.3 large rod end w/ bearing shells---------------1.1688#
2.3 N/A standard bore piston------------------------1.15#
2.3 N/A wrist pin--------------------------------------.32#
2.3 N/A rod-------------------------------------------1.40#
2.3 large journal bearing shells----------------------.09#/pr

I'll revise these a bit later.



Advertised horsepower and torque ratings.

Passenger car (Pinto, Mustang, etc.)

Year..........Hp.............torque
'74........102@5200....122@3200
'75........83@4800......109@2800
'76-'77...92@5000......121@3000
'78-'80...88@4800......118@2800
'80-'89...88@4200......122@2600
'84-'86..145@3800.....180@3600...EFI turbo
'86-'89..175@5000.....200@3000...EFI turbo (Merkur)
'90-'91...88@4000......132@2600
'91-'94..105@4600.....135@2600


Posted by Yakk:
Here's what the Chilton Ranger BII book (1983-1990) says in regards to RBV

Engine/Year
2.0L ...............HP..............TQ(LB-FT)......CR..
'83-'86........73@ 4000........107@ 2400.....9.0:1
'87-'88........80@ 4200........106@ 2600.....9.0:1

2.3L ...............HP..............TQ(LB-FT)......CR..
'83-'85........79@ 3800........124@ 2200.....9.0:1 Manual Trans
'83-'85........82@ 4200........126@ 2200.....9.0:1 Auto Trans
'86-'88........90@ 4000........134@ 2000.....9.0:1
'89-'90.......100@ 4600........133@ 2600.....9.2:1

Posted by 510ranger:
lets see...-looks in chiltons guide for 91-99 rangers / explorers / mountaineers-

2.3L.......HP................Torque

1991......100 @ 4600.....133 @ 2600
1992......100 @ 4600.....133 @ 2600
1993......100 @ 4600.....133 @ 2600
1994......100 @ 4600.....133 @ 2600
1995......100 @ 4600.....133 @ 2600
1996......112 @ 4800.....135 @ 2400
1997......112 @ 4800.....135 @ 2400
2.5L
1998......117 @ 4500.....149 @ 2500
1999......117 @ 4500.....149 @ 2500

so yes, it changed in 1996, they upped the CR from 9.2 to 9.4:1
In '96 they also changed to a redesigned head with lighter (smaller stem) valves, valve springs and retainers. And reduced the size of the combustion chamber.


Added by pacodiablo:

2000 - 2001 2.5L engines make 119 HP at 5000 RPM and 146 ft. lbs. TQ at 3000 RPM.



Wiring pin-outs for:
(thanks to TBRONK for sending these)


87-88 THUNDERBIRD TURBO COUPE PINOUT


# COLOR FUNCTION
01 Y (KAPWR) KEEP ALIVE POWER
02 LG (BOO) BRAKE ON / OFF
03 DG/W VSS DIF (+)
04 DG/Y (IDM) IGNITION DIAGNOSTIC MONITOR
05 - NOT USED
06 O/Y (VSS-DIF) CRUISE CONTROL (-)
07 LG/Y (ECT) ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE
08 - NOT USED
09 - NOT USED
10 BK/Y (ACC) A/C CLUTCH
11 - NOT USED
12 - NOT USED
13 - NOT USED
14 - NOT USED
15 - NOT USED
16 BK/LG (IGN GND) IGNITION GROUND TFI IGNITION MODULE, DISTRIBUTOR
17 Y/BK (STO/MIL) SELF TEST OUTPUT
18 - NOT USED
19 - NOT USED
20 BK/LG (CSE GND) CASE GROUND
21 O/BK (ISC) IDLE SPEED CONTROL
22 T/LG (FP) FUEL PUMP CONTROL
23 Y/R (KS) KNOCK SENSOR
24 R/Y (OCT ADJ) OCTANE SWITCH
25 P/BK (ACT) AIR CHARGE TEMP
26 O/W (VREF) VOLTAGE REFERENCE
27 W/BK (VAF) VANE AIR FLOW
28 - NOT USED
29 DG/P (HEGO) EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR
30 BR/W (NDS/NI) NEUTRAL DRIVE SWITCH (AUTO) / NEUTRAL INPUT (MANUAL)
31 BK/PK (BOOST) BOOST CONTROL
32 - NOT USED
33 Y (EGR S/O) EGR SHUTOFF
34 LB/P (DOL) DATA OUTPUT LINK, USED FOR TRIP/MPG
35 O/W (ACL) PROGRAMMED RIDE CONTROL
36 Y/LG (SPOUT) SPARK OUTPUT TFI IGNITION MODULE, DISTRIBUTOR
37 R (V PWR) VEHICLE POWER
38 - NOT USED
39 - NOT USED
40 BL/LG (CASE GND) BATTERY GROUND
41 - NOT USED
42 Y/LB (KDS) KICK DOWN SOLENOID
43 LG/P (VAT) VANE AIR TEMPERATURE
44 - NOT USED
45 LB/BK (BP) BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
46 BK/W (SIG RET) SIGNAL RETURN
47 DG/LG (TP) THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR
48 W/R (STI) SELF TEST INPUT
49 O (HEGO GND) HEGO GROUND
50 - NOT USED
51 - NOT USED
52 PK (HEDF) HIGH-ELECTRO DRIVE FAN
53 DB/Y (LUS) LOCKING UPSHIFT SOLENOID
54 R (WAC) WOT A/C CUTOFF
55 T/O (EDF) ELECTRO DRIVE FAN
56 DB (PIP) TFI IGNITION MODULE, DISTRIBUTOR
57 R (VPWR) VEHICLE POWER
58 T (INJ A) INJECTOR BANK 1
59 BN/Y (INJ (IMG:style_emoticons/default/cool.gif) INJECTOR BANK 2
60 BK/LG (PWR GND) BATTERY GROUND






92-94 FORD RANGER 2.3 PINOUT


# COLOR FUNCTION
01 Y (B+) KEEP ALIVE POWER INPUT
02 LG (BOO) BRAKE ON/OFF INPUT
03 GY/BK (VSS) VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR INPUT
04 T/Y IGNITION MONITOR
05 GY (CKP) CRANK POSITION SENSOR SIGNAL INPUT
06 PK/O (VSS) VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR GROUND
07 LG/R (ECT) ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
08 DG/Y FUEL PUMP MONITOR
09 PK/LB DATA (-)
10 DG/O A/C CYCLE PRESSURE SWITCH INPUT
11 - NOT USED
12 - NOT USED
13 - NOT USED
14 LB/R (MAF) MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR
15 T/LB (MAF) MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR RETURN
16 O/R IGNITION GROUND
17 PK/LG (MIL) DATA LINK OUTPUT / MALFUNCTION IDICATOR LAMP
18 - NOT USED
19 - NOT USED
20 BK/LG GROUND
21 W/LB (IAC) IDLE AIR CONTROL OUTPUT
22 LB/O FUEL PUMP ENABLE OUTPUT
23 - NOT USED
24 Y/LG (PSP) POWER STEERING SWITCH INPUT
25 GY (IAT) INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR INPUT
26 BR/W REFERENCE VOLTAGE OUTPUT
27 BR/LG (EVP) EGR VALVE POSITION SENSOR INPUT (MANUAL ONLY)
28 T/O DATA (+)
29 GY/LB HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR INPUT
30 LB/Y PARK / NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH INPUT
31 - NOT USED
32 DB/Y (DPI) DUAL PLUG INIBIT OUTPUT
33 BR/PK (EVR) EGR VACUUM REGULATOR OUTPUT
34 - NOT USED
35 - NOT USED
36 PK (SPOUT) SPARK OUT OUTPUT
37 R POWER INPUT
38 - NOT USED
39 - NOT USED
40 BK/W GROUND
41 - NOT USED
42 - NOT USED
43 P A/C SELECTOR INPUT
44 DG OCTANE ADJUST SIGNAL
45 - NOT USED
46 GY/R SENSOR SIGNAL RETURN
47 GY/W (TP) THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR INPUT
48 W/P DATA LINK INPUT
49 GY/R SENSOR SIGNAL RETURN
50 - NOT USED
51 - NOT USED
52 O/Y A4LD TRANSMISSION SOLENOID
53 P/Y (TCC) TORQUE CONVERTER CLUTCH SOLENOID
54 PK/Y WOT CUTOUT RELAY
55 - NOT USED
56 GY/O IGNITION MODULE RPM INPUT
57 R POWER INPUT
58 T INJECTOR 1,4 OUTPUT
59 W INJECTOR 2,3 OUTPUT
60 BK/W GROUND
 
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TireIron

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thank you SO MUCH for saving this info for us here.
 

TRUNK_MONKEY

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so did i read right?you can make a stroker with using the 2.5 crank and rods and pistons?
 

tlink211

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Thank You! Jspafford. For posting this information.
I hope I never need most of it, but a few things were really interesting at this moment and the pinouts might come in handy.
 

Dave R

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jspafford,
You have my thanks as well. That could have been recreated but you saved me quite a bit of work. :)

trunkmonkey,
The '95+ 2.3 and 2.5 Lima (Ranger engines) share the same block, so yes, the only difference is the crank, rods and pistons. They also share the same head/intake/exhaust. Though if your goal is more performance, in addition to more cubes, the factory rods are not a good choice.
 

acousticrawk

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"so yes, it changed in 1996, they upped the CR from 9.2 to 9.4:1"

so, is that just from the head being decked? how much is it decked to raise the compression that much?
 

Dave R

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It's a smaller combustion chamber in the newer head.
 

scotts90ranger

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it's a small note, but I figured it might be worth mentioning...

'89 was a 3 wire O2 sensor, and '90 was a 4 wire O2 sensor, they have the same connector... some early '90's (like mine) are merely a '89 with a newer vin, so in ordering a '90 O2 I got a 4 wire, which made mine run like crap, but if you run that 4th wire to ground, it runs fine, go figure... :)
 

Yettoblaster

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Good read and reference all. Thanks.
 

The Red Ranger

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Awesome post, thanx for all the info. i was wondering if i could take a turbo out of an older model and install in my 96 xl ranger?
 

COMP

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JahzWolf

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Pistons in 2.3L non turbo EFI OHC 1988

So looking at the specs I see I do NOT have the forged pistons in my block, but is there another way to be sure they didn't use a turbo small block on my non-turbo 2.3 efi ohc?

I mean is there a VIN number verification for this like Digit 8?

Since the rods are the same, could I use a LOW Pressure Blower, if so what would be the boast limit I could use?

The other question I have if I want to find a small block with forged pistons in it, how do i identify, and verify it once it has arrived?

Thanks you gear heads, you make my search so much eaiser...
 

stegomon

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oh cool...that is good info
 

STK98RANGER25

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Does anyone know?

Hi I'm new to the forum world and to ranger performance. My question is does anyone know if you can use the head off of the new 2.5l Duratec on the 98-01 2.5 ranger block?:icon_confused: Thanx!
 


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