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1986 Ranger 2.3 wont start.


Rangeriffic

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86 2.3l will crank but not fire. I bought this truck from a guy that states "the fuel pump relay went out" replaced the relay and it still wont fire. I have jumped the inertia switch for GP. Here is my current status:

Ignition on: no fuel pump prime. however, 12v power applied directly to the fuel pump relay terminal will turn on the in-tank and HP fuel pump.

I attempted to test the relays (I replaced both the green and brown - fuel and ignition). I applied 12v to the coil and did not hear a click, but I do not know if more modern relays do, or do not have an audible click still. So I then checked the switch side of the relay for continuity while the relay was energized. I did not get continuity. Now I read the wiring diagram a thousand times and looked for a pin out sheet for the relay and I believe I was testing the relay properly, however, I find it odd and unlikely that both new relays could be bad, unless they were fried for some reason upon the first starting attempt, but they are not melted and appear to be good still.moving on.

I also think I am not getting spark ( these could be related problems I think) I removed the number 1 spark plug and the boot and cracked it over while attempting to jump the spark. no spark. In all fairness the cap and rotor looks like garbage, but I would still see a bit of something, maybe a flicker.

I have not checked the timing belt (cam gear) or the distributor for movement. I will try that tomorrow.

I have a few questions I could use some help with.

1. Is there anywhere I can get good detailed instruction on using the OBD1 test port?

2. Is there anything very obvious to check that night me my golden ticket.

3. I have the factory diagnostic and system discernment manual, but I do not have a breakout box, does anyone know if the ports on the breakout box correlate to the order of the wires according to the ECC pin out sheet? (ex. is port 5 on the BoB that same as wire 5 on the ECC connector?)

That's about all I got people. please feel free to ask me questions and or offer insight.
 


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icetherice

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The fuel pump works when 12v is directly applied.

You said that you tried to test for continuity while the relays were energized (I'm assuming you mean KOEO) and did not get continuity. I would measure the relays with KOEO and see if they are getting voltage or not.

It sounds like the voltage is simply not getting to the fuel and ignition circuits, is there such thing as an ignition relay?

If it's cranking and sounds like it's making compression, you don't have to worry about the timing belt. I've tried to start engines that were making zero compression (friend's civic fried the rings), you can tell something is wrong immediately haha.

Check your ignition wire/lock cylinder. If it's not sending signal on the RED/LT. GREEN wire I think that would explain not getting fuel + spark. '93 had an ignition module right?
 

Rangeriffic

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sorry I did not specify, yes it was KOEO, I don't know why I did not think to check voltage :icon_idea: . I can do that this afternoon.

I had not thought of the ignition wire off of the cylinder. Thanks Ill take a look at it.

There is also an ignition relay, I also replaced that, but I will check it for voltage on the switch sire as well (to my knowledge, some one please correct me if I'm wrong. The ignition relay only energizes when the truck is being cranked?)
 

RonD

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Yes, reads like voltage to engine systems issue

But, any time you have a crank but no start issue on any engine the first thing you should do is 50/50 test
Spray fuel into the intake and crank the engine
If it starts and dies, you have spark(at the right time) but no fuel delivery
If it doesn't start, then you have no spark, or maybe no compression
50/50, quick and easy

With 1986 2.3l you would not have spark with broken timing belt because distributor would not be turning, so you can check timing belt that way, pop distributor cap and see if rotor turns when cranking engine

In 1986 12volt power distribution is done at the starter relay(starter solenoid) on the inner fender.
Battery Positive cable runs to one of the larger posts on this relay, and then several other wires are connected on this same post.
ALL 12volt power is distributed from this one post
So all connections on this post must be clean and corrosion free

12volts doesn't exist without 0volts(ground)
So Battery Negative cable must also have good connections to engine, frame, inner fender(for the relays) and Cab

When you turn the key ON the ignition switch sends 12v to Coil "+", test for this

The Brown Base Relay is the EEC relay, it should "click" closed with key on, it sends 12v to EEC(computer), fuel injectors, and a few other systems, EEC relay remains closed while key is On, or engine wouldn't run
Test that one fuel injector has 12v with key ON, that means EEC relay is Closed

EEC relay also powers Green Based Relay(fuel pump relay), not the pump, just the relay's coil.
Computer GROUNDS this coil to Closed the Fuel Pump Relay and sends 12v(from starter relay post) to the fuel pump

If you don't get 12v at Coil "+" or at Fuel injectors then power is not coming out of ignition switch.
Ignition switch gets its 12v from that starter relay post, on one Yellow wire with fusible link(usually Orange color)
Most of the wires on that Post are connected with Fusible links

Fusible link is a smaller gauge wire that acts as a fuse, it will separate without melting and causing a fire, if there is a short.
So check all the wires on that starter relay post to see if any have separated

The Computer won't tell you much unless engine is running, OBD1 is also very limited even when it is running.

OBD1 diagnostics here: https://www.therangerstation.com/how-to/ignition-charging-computers/testing-eec-iv-equipped-engines/

In the diagram, on above page, you will see Fuel Pump Slot labelled
With key ON, you can GROUND that slot and if Fuel Pump Relay has coil 12v, then it will "click" closed, and fuel pump should come on.
This Slot on the OBD1 connector is spliced to the Computers wire to GROUND fuel pump relay's coil, so grounding this slot does the same thing computer should do.
But computer only Grounds FP relay for 2 seconds with Key ON, its a safety thing, but it Grounds it for 2 seconds EACH TIME key is turned from off to on.
Grounding the slot allows better testing by leaving fuel pump on while key is on, fuel pump will shut off when key is off
Computer Grounds FP relay full time when engine RPMs are above 400, engine started

1986 OBD1 used 2 digit codes, seen here: https://www.therangerstation.com/how-to/ignition-charging-computers/obd-i-diagnostic-trouble-code-dtc-applications-2-digit-ford-codes/

Very limited in scope
 
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Rangeriffic

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RonD,

Thank you for the thorough description. It filled in some of the information holes I could not pull out when I was going over the wiring diagram. I will start with the 50/50 and go from there.
 

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Ok, so I spent the morning working through the recommended testing. Here are my findings.

The 50/50 test was a failure, the truck did not try to fire at all.

All fusible links appear to be OK, not sure exactly how one would test them, but that are are intact, and clean. (I have seen burnt up fusible links a my look good)

The batter is solidly grounded to the engine, chassis and the fender and the contacts are clean. (Also, the battery is brand new last week, holds 12.54 volts and is rated at 560 CCA)

The distributor spins when the truck is cranked.

The EEC relay (Brown) does not click when the ignition is turned on.

KOEO - The fuel pump does not come on when the OBD I FP socket is jumped to ground

KOEO - the coil (+) has 12v

KOEO - The fuel injectors DO NOT have 12v

At this point I am still learning what all of this data means. I assume that it is an indicator that my EEC relay is bad (which is weird, as both the EEC brown and FP relay green are brand new). It seems that I just have more questions now.

As far as the spark goes, Could I have a problem with the ICM or the distributor pick up coil,

Or is it more likely the relay is not sending the proper voltage to the components, and resulting in a combination of no spark / no fuel?

In words of Ross Perot, "I'm all ears."
 

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I'll think you're supposed to have 12v on the injectors. The computer grounds them to make them " inject".

This message composed solely of recycled electrons. Go green!
 

RonD

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Surprises me it didn't fire if ignition coil had 12v with 50/50 test


EEC relay(brown base) powers fuel injectors and the computer(EEC), also fuel pump relay
You will have to test the wires in the Brown base

Key On 12v from the ignition switch activates the coil in this relay, coil should have a full time ground, so it should close(click)

There will be 1 wire in brown base that has 12volt all the time, from fusible link or fuse
This was a solid Yellow wire in later models

One wire will go to injectors and Computer, this is almost always a solid Red wire


A black solid or black with stripe wire as Ground for relay coil
A red with stripe wire for 12v FROM ignition switch for relay coil, 12v here with key on, 0v with key off
 

Rangeriffic

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Tested the EEC and FP relays, strangest thing, both are shot. I can hardly believe it. They are brand spanking new, but I have seen weirder stuff I guess. I found the hot wire on the EEC (yellow by the way like you said).

Key off - only hot (yellow) wire has 12V

Key on - hot wire and now red with green stripe (from Ignition Switch), but the coil never energized and solid red wire still had no voltage.... Bad relay(s).

For GP I reversed polarity of my test leads and checked the black wire as well. it is grounded well.

NOW... here is the continuing problem. I Jumped the red and red w/ G stripe (EEC terminal) and now I have 12V at the injectors.

THEN... I jumped the FP relay and both pumps kicked on. I went for a start, but still would not start.

Whats next? Could it be the ICM or the distributor pick up coil/reluctor? or even the coil? not sure where to go from here.:icon_confused:
 

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How would one test the ICM or distributor pick up coil, or do you think I'm off base thinking that direction?

How do you test the coil itself?
 

RonD

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How would one test the ICM or distributor pick up coil, or do you think I'm off base thinking that direction?

How do you test the coil itself?
Most auto parts stores have an ICM tester.

To test Ignition coil use spark wire and spark plug in the coil
Ground spark plug
Ground coil's "-" terminal(same ground as spark plug)
Touch 12v wire to Coil's "+" terminal then pull it off
Spark plug should spark when 12v(or Ground) is removed from Coil

Ignition coil works by creating a Magnet field on Primary coil of wire, which surrounds and energizes the Secondary coil of wire, when power is cut Magnet field collapses which sends out spark on Secondary coil to ground(spark plug)
Ignition systems cut the Ground not the 12v at the coil but same thing happens if you cut either one.
Original system used metal POINTS inside a metal distributor, so using the GROUND was much easier that trying to isolate the 12volts inside a distributor :)


Sensor in the distributor is a Hall Effect Sensor, it has 12v and a ground from TFI module, 3rd wire is the PIP(Pulse) wire, it sends out a pulse each time it detects a magnetic field

TFI diagnostics found here: https://www.therangerstation.com/how-to/ignition-charging-computers/ford-eec-ivtfi-iv-electronic-engine-control-troubleshooting/
 

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RonD, Thank you again, I will perform these test as well. You are a gentleman and a scholar. Ill keep everyone posted on the results.

- Quick question, have you seen relays get fried as soon as the ignition is turned on? I only ask because I magically have 2 brand new relays that are "no good". Not sure how or what to check for other than what I have already checked for, nothing appears to be grounded out and the fusible links are in tact. I know a little about electricity and its concepts but by no means am an expert. Open to instruction and recommendations.
 

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Relays can possibly get 'fried' in three ways: 1)deep fat at the GreaseBurger FF machine, 2) points fried and 3) solenoid/coil fried. Number 1 was a joke, leaving 2 & 3.
Which fried do you have?
Number 2 would be caused by too much current being passed from the 'power' to the 'load', burning the relay contacts.
Number 3 would be caused by too much current being passed through the solenoid magnetic coil windings. That should not happen unless the relay is connected such that the coil winding is carrying the 'load' current.
So, what fry do you have?

If you do not have power to the EEC and FP relays when the key is ON, and do not get the '5 second fuel pump run', start there. Check the ignition switch for 'fallapart' symptoms. The switch is inside the steering column plastic cover. Remove the 3 Philips head screws, and wiggle the cover loose. The plastic retainer that holds all the wires connected to the ignition switch may be easing its way out of the switch, or actually the plastic that holds the switch contacts may be falling out of the switch body metal. The 'pinchers' that hold it all together may be failing after 30 years. If so, get a new switch, they are cheap.
Check for 12v at two places with the key at the ON position: 12v at the coil, both sides, and 12V at the EEC relay, both 'load' and 'switch' terminals. The 'switch terminal supplies power to the coil to energize it, and the 'load' terminal provides the 'big amp' power to the EEC-IV computer through the relay contacts.
If you don't have 12V to the computer, the relay being inside the right (passenger) kick panel on top of the computer(85 was...), is a good place to check. Maybe 86 moved the EEC relay. If no 12V to the coil, trace that problem down as it will never start otherwise.
The injectors have 12v on both terminals when the ignition switch is ON. Ground supplied/denied by the computer to make the injectors pulse.
Those are the basics that should be covered before going more esoteric.
tom
 

RonD

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Relays have 2 separate electrical pathways

The coil is a thin wire wrapped around a metal core, when 12v and Ground are applied very LOW amps, like .3amp, flow and cause the metal core to become a magnet, electro-magnet

The magnet pulls down a spring loaded metal arm connecting 2 HIGH AMP contacts, usually rated for 30-40amps

The coils 2 connections are 85 and 86

The High amp connections are 30 and 87

Pictures here: http://www.gtsparkplugs.com/intro-automotive-relays.html

30 and 87 are for the Load, the device thats turned on by the relay, like a Fuel Pump.
If......the Load was connected to 85 or 86 by mistake then the AMP Draw would burn out the Coil wire, its too small to carry higher amps
 


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