Ford Ranger 4-Cylinder Engines

These motors are commonly referred to as either the Lima or simply the 2.0, 2.3 or 2.5 OHC (Over Head Cam) engines. They started life based on the German designed 2.0 EAO sport motors that were first introduced to this country in the Mercury Capri’s from the early 1970’s. They share nothing with the 2.3 – 2.5 liter HSC motors that were offered in the passenger car line from 1984 – 1991.

The 2.3 first debuted in the 1974 Pinto using a progressive 2bbl Weber/Holley carburetor and a points distributor. In 1975 they were upgraded to a Duraspark ignition system. They remained unchanged until about 1981 when the intake ports were changed from an oval to a ‘D’ shape (flat floor). 

The 2.0/2.3 liter versions that were offered in Rangers starting in 1983 used a different head having four evenly spaced round holes of equal size. A 2.0 liter 1bbl carbureted version was offered in Rangers from 1983 – 1985, and in 1987 – 1988 with a 2bbl carburetor in some parts of the US, Canada and Mexico. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) was added to the engines in 1985. In 1989 the 2.3 was changed to a DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition utilizing a new 8-plug head ( 2-plugs per cylinder). This head had larger evenly spaced D-shaped intake ports and was used until the end of production of the 2.5 in 2001. 

The 2.5 liter version was only offered from 1998 To 2001, when the engine was replaced by a 2.3 liter DOHC Duratec based engine. The 2.5 was a stroked (by 7 mm) version of the 2.3 OHC Ford Ranger engine. It also used higher-flow cylinder heads for better intake and combustion. It was replaced in 2001 by the Mazda-derived Duratec 23.

In 1979 – 1981 a high compression draw thru carbureted turbo version of the 2.3 was offered. In 1983 – 1988 a lower compression EFI turbo version was offered in T-birds, Cougars, Mustang SVOs and Merkur XR4Ti’s (through 1989).

Some of the changes to the motor over the years were:

  • Rear main seal changed from a two piece to a one piece design in 1986

  • Roller cams were installed from 1989 on in Rangers and 1991 on in Mustangs

  • Crankshaft main journal sizes were reduced starting in 1988

  • CPS (Cam Position Sensor) was added starting in 1995 (1994 in California). At this time Ford changed to a 104-pin computer (it was a 60-pin) and moved the DIS functions into the computer, previously the DIS system had a TFI module as a separate unit mounted on the front of the intake manifold.

2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5 Specifications

2.0L (1983 – 1988)

Displacement 122 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.52 x 3.13 inches
Compression Ratio 9.0:1
Fuel System Carburetor
Fuel Pressure 5 – 7 psi
Horsepower 73hp @ 4000 RPM (1983 – 1986)

80hp @ 4200 RPM (1987 – 1988)

Torque 107 @ 2400 RPM (1983 – 1986)

106 @ 2600 RPM (1987 – 1988)

Oil Pressure 40 – 60 PSI @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug AWSF-52C
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Ignition Timing 6 degrees BTDC (1984 is 8 deg.)
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor Rotation Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 quarts
Cooling System 6.5 quarts

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25 – 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 – 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 – 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 – 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 – 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 – 23 ft-lbs)]

2.3L (1989 – 1997)

Displacement 140 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.780 x 3.126 inches
Compression Ratio 9.0:1 (1983 – 1988)

9.2:1 (1990 – 1993)

9.4:1 (1994 – 1997)

Fuel System Carburetor (1983 – 1984)

Multipot Fuel Injection (MFI) (1985 – 1997)

Fuel Pressure 5 – 7 psi (1983 – 1984)

30 – 40 psi (1985 – 1997)

Horsepower 79hp @ 3800 RPM (1983 – 1985) Manual

82hp @ 4200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Auto

90hp @ 4000 RPM (1986 – 1988)

100hp @ 4600 RPM (1989 – 1995)

112hp @ 4800 RPM (1996 – 1997)

Torque 124 @ 2200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Manual

126 @ 2200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Auto

130 @ 1800 RPM (1986 – 1988)

133 @ 2600 RPM (1989 – 1995)

135 @ 2400 RPM (1996 – 1997)

Oil Pressure 40 – 60 psi @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug AWSF-44C (1984 – 1990)

AWSR-32PP (1993 – 1995)

AWSR-32F (1996 – 1997)

Spark Plug Gap 0.044
Ignition Timing 10 degrees BTDC
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor Rotation Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 Quarts
Cooling System (Quarts) W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)] (1989 – 1995)

51 ft-lbs (1996 – 1997)

Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25 – 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 – 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 – 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 – 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 – 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 – 23 ft-lbs)]

2.5L MFI (1998 – 2001)

Displacement 152 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.780 x 3.401 inches
Compression Ratio 9.1:1
Fuel System MFI (Multiport Fuel Injection)
Fuel Pressure 56 – 72 psi
Horsepower 117hp @ 4500 RPM (1998 – 1999)

119hp @ 5000 RPM (2000 – 2001)

Torque 149ft-lbs @ 2500 RPM (1998 – 1999)

146ft-lbs. @ 3000 RPM (2000 – 2001)

Oil Pressure 40 – 60 psi @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug SP-432
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Firing Order 1-3-4-2

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 Quarts
Cooling System (Quarts) W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head 51 ft-lbs
Main Bearing Bolts 75 – 85 ft-lbs
Rod Bearing Bolts 30 – 36 ft-lbs
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 103 – 133 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 – 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold 19 – 28 ft-lbs
Exhaust Manifold 14 – 21 ft-lbs

2.3L Duratec (2002-2011)

Displacement 140 CID
Type Dual Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.445 x 3.7010 inches 
Compression Ratio 9.7:1
Fuel System Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection — Four Port-Mounted Fuel Injectors Electronically Triggered By EEC-V Module
Fuel Pressure 60-65 psi
Horsepower 135 @ 5050 (2002)

143 @ 5250 (2003-2011)

Torque 153 @ 3750 (2002)

154 @ 3750 (2003-2011)

Oil Pressure 55 psi @ 6000 rpm

Tune Up

Spark Plug SP-439
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Firing Order 1-3-4-2

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 4 Quarts
Cooling System (Quarts) W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head Stage 1: 44 in-lbsStage 2: 132 in -lbs

Stage 3: 33 ft-lbs

Stage 4: Rotate 90 degrees (1/4 turn)

Stage 5: Angle tighten 90 degrees

Main Caps 32 ft-lbs and then rotate 180 degrees
Connecting Rod Caps 21 ft-lbs and then rotate 90 degrees
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts Stage 1: 37 ft-lbsStage 2: 59 ft-lbs

Stage 3: 83 ft-lbs

Intake Manifold 156 in-lbs
Exhaust Manifold 40 ft-lbs

 

2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5 Firing Orders:

2.0L and 1983-1988 2.3L Engines

Firing Order: 1-3-4-2 (Distributor Rotation: Clockwise)

1989–1997 2.3L, 2002-2003 2.3L Duratec and 1998-2001 2.5L Engines

Firing Order: 1–3–4–2 (Distributorless Ignition)

 

Differences between major engine parts are as follows:

Blocks:

The 2.0 is an underbored 2.3.  With the exception of the bore, the blocks are identical to all 2.3’s

1975 – 1988 2.3’s are interchangeable

1989 – 1994 2.3’s are the same as the 1983 – 1988 2.3’s but have a smaller main journal saddle.  The oil pan seal surface was changed in 1987 to eliminate the (4) piece seal and holes were added in the front to bolt on the DIS’s crank trigger assembly.

1995 – 2001’s are similar to the 1989 – 1995’s but a Cam Position Sensor was added behind the aux sprocket. The hole for the distributor was eliminated and the oil pump was moved in place of the aux. shaft itself.

Turbo blocks are identical to the 1983 – 1988 Ranger blocks but have an additional boss with a hole threaded in the passenger side about ½ way back that provides a place to drain the lubricating oil back into the engine from the turbo.

Cranks:

2.0 and early 2.3 cranks are identical.

Late 2.3 cranks have smaller main journals.

2.5 cranks are identical to 2.3’s except they have a longer stroke.

Rods:

2.0 and 2.3 (including turbo) rods are identical up through at least 1994. In fact they still have the original D4 (’74) casting number on them.

Pistons:

The 2.0 pistons are unique and don’t interchange.

The 2.3 pistons are all the same excluding the turbo versions which were forged. Low compression (8.0:1) in the 1983 – 1888’s and high compression (9.0:1) in the 1979 – 1981’s.

The 2.5 pistons are similar to the 2.3’s but have a different wrist pin height.

Heads: 

All 2.0/2.3/2.5 heads will physically bolt in place of each other.  They all have similar exhaust port shape and placement. All cams are interchangeable as long as they are used with the proper followers. Later model (1995 and newer) roller cam followers cannot be easily swapped onto an older head as the valve stem size was reduced in the newer heads and matching slot in the follower was reduced. Early 2.0 and 2.3 heads have the same small round intake ports spaced evenly apart. They differ from each other in their valve sizes though.

Head Variations:

There are several variations on the 2.3 heads though they break down into (4) distinct types:

1) Passenger car oval port heads – 1974 – 1980 Mustang, Pinto, Fairmont, Bobcat, etc.

2) Passenger car D-port head – 1981 – 1995? T-bird, Mustang, Etc.

3) Truck round port – 1983 – 1985 Ranger

4) Truck D-port – 1989 – 2001 Ranger. The 1989 – 1994’s and 1995 – 2001’s have different combustion chambers and ports. It is thought that the newer head is better designed.

Part Numbers:

The following parts and information are from the Federal Mogul website.  The part numbers are theirs and are Sealed Power numbers.  Those in parenthesis are: FP = Fel-Pro, FM = Federal Mogul

Cylinder Head

Part Years Covered Part Number
Head Bolts 83-01 ES72137 (FP)
Exhaust Valve (1.500” head, .3414” stem dia, 4.792” OAL) 83-94 V3943
Exhaust Valve (1.500” head, .2740” stem dia, 4.8070” OAL) 95-01 V4553
Intake Valve (1.735” head, .3419” stem dia, 4.787” OAL) 83-94 V2170
Intake Valve (1.735” head, .2750” stem dia, 4.787” OAL) 95-01 V4488
Valve Guide (.3440 ID, 2.1880” OAL-spiral reamed & flg) 83-94 VG1372
Valve Guide (Threaded, .2765” ID, 1.9300” OAL) 95-97 VG1389T
Valve Spring (1.9800” free height w/ damper) 83-94 VS1459
Valve Spring (2.0197” free height) 95-01 VS1647
Valve Keeper/Lock 83-94 VK205
Valve Keeper/Lock (Hard) 83-94 VK205R
Valve Keeper/Lock 95-01 VK287
Valve Spring Insert [(shims) (A=.060” B=.030” C=.015”) 83-94 259-102A or B or C

Engine

Part Years Covered Part Number
Connecting Rods (Forging #D42E-AA) 1974 – 1997 R25BJ (FM)
Pistons – 2.3L (2-2.00mm/1-4.76mm rings, Comp Dist:1.578”. Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1977 – 1991 H435P
Pistons – 2.3L (2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.575”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1983 – 1994 H537P
Pistons – 2.3L (2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.578”, Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1982 – 1989 495P
Pistons – 2.3? (2-1.5mm/1-3.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.335”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1995 – 1997 H676P
Oil Pump (4/8/85 and older) (Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminum Oil Pan) 1980 – 1985 224-41160
Oil Pump High Volume (Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminum Oil Pan) 1980 – 1995 224-41160V
Oil Pump (4/9/85 and newer) 1986 – 1994 224-41127
Oil Pump Shaft 1980 – 1994 224-61160
Oil pump screen 1977 – 1985 224-12160
Oil pump screen 1986 – 1994 224-13160